Evolution is necessary, especially to persist for billions of years. Millions of organisms have evolved in various manners to survive, reproduce and become more efficient. However, this is natural and cannot be controlled. But, with Artificial Intelligence (AI), we can reproduce the same evolutionary system in a controlled environment. With the technology we possess for the last few decades, we are now capable of identifying the configurable organisms and then altering their behaviour using biotechnology. This has become especially easy with the help of biotechnology and Artificial Intelligence. AI has made it possible to simulate millions of years of evolution to figure out the right configurations for sustainable organic robots. These robots are organic and composed of stem cells that originate from African clawed frogs (Scientific Name: Xenopus laevis). Stem cells are fundamentally configurable cells that can be used for the replication of tissues and organic growth. Thus, Xenobots are simply programmable living things. 

Xenobots are a result of robotics, computer science, and biology. These living robots are designed using stem cells that go through billions of virtual simulations using Artificial Intelligence. This allows scientists and researchers to test prototypes that would generally take thousands of years if left to natural evolution. More than anything, modern Xenobots can self-replicate. This has never been done before and these living robots are capable of replicating on their own for a long time. For example, modern Xenobots can continue this process of self-replication for multiple generations. These living robots also survive for longer and can be programmed to carry out certain functions as well.

What are Xenobots?

Fundamentally, Xenobots are synthetic lifeforms that are based on biological tissues and designed using computers. They are created using stem cells as these cells have the capability of developing into various cell types even without the manipulation of genes. Xenobots are a collection of cells that follow algorithms. They are the first of their kind, especially when it comes to living organic matter powered by computation. The concept of Xenobots was first introduced as blueprints with the help of AI. These earlier Xenobots were not capable of complex functions but could move around in fluid and other liquid-based solutions. However, these synthetic organisms could only survive for a maximum of ten days. Early applications of Xenobots were limited to monitoring pollutants, diseases, drugs, and radioactivity but eventually, with the help of advanced AI methodologies such as ANNs (Artificial Neural Networks), they were programmed to become autonomous. Now, with the help of various algorithms and virtual testing environments, Xenobots can be programmed to carry out simple tasks such as moving around, carrying payloads, forming groups, or self-healing. 

Xenobots follow a reproductive pattern that is unique and not seen in any other plant-based or animal-based life form. Even though these are fundamentally robots, they undergo biological reproduction. The cells that form Xenobots are extracted from the embryonic cells and given a chance to survive in other environments. This allows these synthetic beings to learn how to move on their own and effectively reproduce in the most efficient way possible. Various probabilities are virtually tested through simulating various evolution algorithms, this is a great example of how lifeforms try to progress and survive. 

Xenobots are less than 0.039 inches or a millimetre and comprise two types of cells. Both the cells are extracted from frog embryos that are in their blastula stage. The first type of cell is the skin cell which forms the foundation of the organism and gives the Xenobots their shapes. The other cells or the heart cells function as motors that help the organism function by expansion and contraction. This allows the Xenobots to move around and carry out specific tasks. Using trial and error or various simulations, scientists have now figured out various combinations that will enable these living robots to work together, carry payloads, push pellets, swim in fluid, and even walk. These Xenobots also are capable of surviving for weeks without food and can heal from most lacerations.

With more advanced implementations of AI, Xenobots can even adapt to other means of locomotion and can swim in other environments. Though unstable, other sensors and motors can be incorporated through patches of cilia. Xenobots can be programmed to grow these patches of cilia to swim in a more defined manner. However, locomotion powered by cardiac activity can be controlled better. These living robots can also be given molecular memory with the help of RNA molecules. 

How do Xenobots Reproduce?

Xenobots essentially replicate on their own. If Xenobots are released in an open environment with loose cells, these organisms are capable of transforming the loose cells into xenobots possessing similar capabilities. Xenobots were initially shaped like spheres and composed of 3000 cells but this form allowed these organisms to only replicate under certain circumstances and very controlled environments. With the help of AI and rigorous testing in virtual environments using different body shapes, Xenobots became more effective at replicating without any human supervision. This happens at a molecular level and is a form of kinetic replication. The most effective form of Xenobots is a C-shape, this allows the organisms to find other stem cells and collect hundreds of them to build new Xenobots. The C-shape itself can be declared as the program that powers the replication. The system of collecting other stem cells and self-replicating is sustainable and can go on for generations. Xenobots have also become faster at replicating, with the entire process taking only a few days.

Potential applications of Xenobots

Here are some of the important applications of Xenobots:

  • Xenobots can be used to study how cells cooperate and create complex bodies during morphogenesis.
  • These organisms can also help us understand the biocompatibility and behaviour of other complex organisms.
  • Xenobots are biodegradable and will not leave any negative ecological impact if used for industrial or commercial applications.
  • These organisms can push microplastics in water bodies such as rivers or oceans and then collect them in balls of plastic that can then be removed or recycled.
  • Xenobots can be used for delivering drugs.
  • These organisms can be created from a human patient’s cells in the future, which would in turn help in bypassing the immune response that other micro-robotic delivery systems experience.
  • Xenobots can identify, locate and treat various diseases that cannot be accessed directly.
  • These organisms can scrape plaque from arteries.
  • Xenobots can act as biological tools that suppress certain harmful factors that trigger organic events inside the human body.
  • Xenobots can help create medicine with the help of AI that would take years and years of research.


We know of robots being made of plastics or metal, but they can also be completely organic. Xenobots are simply frog cells that have been configured with the help of AI. There is nothing inorganic in these organisms and they become dead cells once they live out their lives, thus, not polluting the environment. The benefits of using Xenobots are endless. From the inspection of root systems to the creation of regenerative medicine, the potential applications of using Xenobots are endless.

Also Read: Different Kinds of Robots used in Healthcare